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Ammonium chloride finds its use as a flux in preparing metals for galvanizing, soldering or tin coating. While mainly referred as a nitrogen source fertilizer, it is also used in cleaning tip of soldering iron, hair shampoo as a thickening agent, some batteries as electrolyte, tanning, textile printing, dyeing, and cleaning products. In laboratories it is used to produce cooling baths and for producing buffers. Along with certain metals, it is used for effecting certain reductions in organic synthesis. It can be used as a precursor to ammonium cyanate, which is employed in the Wöhler synthesis of urea. It facilitates several organic transformations in a mild and efficient manner - for example in Ulmann coupling, cross-aldol condensation, Claisen rearrangement, reduction, thia-Michael addition and synthesis of several monocyclic, fused or spiro bicyclic nitrogen heterocycles.
Pal, R. Recent Progress of Ammonium Chloride as Catalyst in Organic Synthesis. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 2013, 4 (2), 86-99.
Chernyshev, A. V.; Tarasov, P. A.; Semianov, K. A.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Hoekstra, A. G.; Maltsev, V. P. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: Theoretical modeling and experimental verification. J. Theor. Biol. 2008, 251 (1), 93-107.
Peppin, S. S. L.; Huppert, H. E.; Worster, M. G. Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. J. Fluid Mech. 2008, 599, 465-476.
Gefahrenhinweise (EU): H302-H319
Harmful if swallowed. Causes serious eye irritation.
Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Obtain special instructions before use. Wear eye/face protection. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.