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Nitrobenzene is used as a solvent and as a starting material in the organic synthesis for the preparation of aniline, benzidine, azobenzene, nitrosobenzene, phenylhydroxylamine and acetaminophen. It is also used as a solvent for electrophilic reagents in synthetic chemistry. Further, it is used to prevent the unpleasant odor in shoe, floor and metal polishes. It acts as a precursor to rubber chemicals, azo dyes and pharmaceuticals.
For selective reduction to phenylhydroxylamine with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of rhodium, see: Org. Synth. Coll., 8, 16 (1993).
Electrophilic iodination of the deactivated ring has been effected with N-Iodosuccinimide, A14320, in triflic acid: J. Org. Chem., 58, 3194 (1993).
Commonly used, high dielectric constant solvent, e.g. in Friedel-Crafts reactions. CAUTION! Exothermic reactions can occur with aluminum chloride.
Fu, L.; Cai, W.; Wang, A.; Zheng, Y. Photocatalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline over tungsten oxide-silver nanowires. Mater. Lett. 2015, 142, 201-203.
Boukobza, M.; Garnier, R.; Cleophax, C.; Baud, F. J. CT and MRI findings and follow-up after massive nitrobenzene ingestion. A case report. J. Neurol. Sci. 2015, 357 (1-2), 322-325.
Gefahrenhinweise (EU): H227-H300-H310-H330-H351-H361-H372
Combustible liquid. Fatal if swallowed. Fatal in contact with skin. Fatal if inhaled. Suspected of causing cancer. Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child. Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.
IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER/doctor IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Specific treatment is urgent (see label). Rinse mouth. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.