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1,3-Propanediol is used as a solvent for thin film preparations, in the production of polymers such as polytrimethylene terephthalate, adhesives, laminates, coatings, moldings, aliphatic polyesters, as an antifreeze and in wood paint. It also acts as a reagent for vinyl epoxide synthon, for epoxide ring-opening, for polymerization reactions and for natural product syntheses.
Used for protection of carbonyl groups as their acetals (1,3-dioxane) derivatives, in the presence of a catalyst, e.g. TsOH: J. Chem. Soc. (C), 244 (1962), pyridine hydrochloride: Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 2287 (1972), or Amberlyst® 15: J. Chem. Soc. Perkin 1, 158 (1979). Comparative studies have indicated that formation of acetals from this diol is slower than for ethylene glycol, as is acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the resulting 1,3-dioxanes of aldehydes in comparison with the 1,3-dioxolanes, whereas for ketones the reverse applies: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 80, 6350 (1958); 90, 1249, 1253 (1968). For a review of the preparation of acetals, see: Synthesis, 501 (1981). Conditions have been described for the protection of acrolein using anhydrous HBr in dichloromethane: Org. Synth. Coll., 7, 59 (1990). For use in the preparation of the cyclic acetal of cyclopropenone, see: Org. Synth. Coll., 8, 173 (1993). The product behaves as a 1,3-dipole in cycloaddition reactions, see Benzylidenemalononitrile, L02426.
Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Pan, Z.; Gu, M.; Punnoose, A. Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles with Controlled Shapes, Sizes, Aggregations, and Surface Complex Compounds for Tuning or Switching the Photoluminescence. Cryst. Growth Des. 2015, 15 (7), 3144-3149.
Nakagawa, Y.; Tamura, M.; Tomishige, K. Catalytic materials for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol. J. Mater. Chem. A 2014, 2 (19), 6688-6702.