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Phosphorus(V) oxide is used as a drying and dehydrating agent, a condensation reagent in organic synthesis and a laboratory reagent. It is also used in sugar refining and in fire extinguishing. Phosphorus pentoxide in DMSO forms an Onodera reagent which oxidizes alcohols. It is capable of converting mineral acids to anhydrides.
Silylates primary and sec-alcohols and phenols, in the presence of p-TsOH as catalyst. If the substrate contains acid-sensitive groups, PPTS can be used: Tetrahedron Lett., 4261 (1978). See Appendix 4.
In the presence of FeCl3, reacts with benzotrichlorides to give substituted benzoyl chlorides in good yields: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 808 (1977).
Reacts with P2O5 to give trimethylsilyl polyphosphate ('PPSE'), a milder and more convenient dehydrating agent then polyphosphoric acid. For examples, and related reagents, see Phosphorus(V) oxide, A13348."
Meier, M. S. Phosphorus(V) Oxide. In Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis; Pacquette, L., Ed.; J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004.
Ebadi, M.; Mirdamadian, Z.; Ghanbari, D.; Moradi, L. The Effect of Aminated Carbon Nanotube and Phosphorus Pentoxide on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardant Properties of the Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene. J. Cluster Sci. 2014, 25 (2), 541-548.
Gefahrenhinweise (EU): H314
Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.