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Maleic acid is used as a precursor to fumaric acid, dimethyl maleate and glyoxalic acid. It is an electrophile and acts as dienophine in Diels-Alder reactions. It reacts with drugs to form more stable addition salts like indacaterol maleate, carfenazine, chlorpheniramine, pyrilamine, methylergonovine and thiethylperazine. Its maleate ion is useful in biochemistry as an inhibitor of transaminase reactions.
Tsukigawa, K.; Liao, L.; Nakamura, H.; Fang, J.; Greish, K.; Otagiri, M.; Maeda, H. Synthesis and therapeutic effect of styrene-maleic acid copolymer-conjugated pirarubicin. Cancer Sci. 2015, 106 (3), 270-278.
Filippov, A.; Tarabukina, E.; Simonova, M.; Kirila, T.; Fundueanu, G.; Harabagiu, V.; Constantin, M.; Popescu, I. Synthesis and Investigation of Double Stimuli-Responsive Behavior of N-Isopropylacrylamide and Maleic Acid Copolymer in Solutions. J. Macromol. Sci. Part B Phys. 2015, 54 (9), 1105-1121.
Gefahrenhinweise (EU): H302-H315-H319-H317-H335
Harmful if swallowed. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause an allergic skin reaction. May cause respiratory irritation.
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wear protective gloves and eye/face protection. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.