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Diiodomethane is used to determine the density of minerals and other solid samples due to its high density. It is used as an optical contact liquid to determine the refractive index of certain gemstones. In simmons-smith reaction, it acts as a reagent to generate methylene (carbine) free radical. It reacts with olefins to prepare cyclopropanes with high stereo specificity.
The combination with Zinc-copper couple, L09811, generates ICH2ZnI, the reagent for the classical Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation of alkenes: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 80, 5323 (1958); examples: Org. Synth. Coll., 5, 85 (1973). Review: Org. React., 20, 1 (1973). Alternative systems include Zn powder/ Cu(I) halide: J. Org. Chem., 35, 2057 (1970); ultrasound irradiation: Tetrahedron Lett., 23, 2729 (1982), thermal activation: Synth. Commun., 22, 2801 (1992), or catalytic TMS-Cl: J. Org. Chem., 59, 2671 (1994) with ordinary zinc; or Zn/Ag couple: Tetrahedron Lett., 4593 (1972); 3327 (1974). Other reagents include trialkylaluminums: J. Org. Chem., 50, 4412 (1985): Org. Synth. Coll., 8, 321 (1993) and the most widely-used modification, diethylzinc: Tetrahedron, 24, 53 (1968); J. Org. Chem., 42, 3031 (1977); for use in the ring-expansion of ketones, see: Org. Synth. Coll., 6, 327 (1988). For use of a boronic acid-derived chiral dioxaborolane ligand in enantioselective cyclopropanantion, see: Tetrahedron Lett., 37, 7925 (1996); Org. Synth., 76, 86 (1998):
Selective ortho-methylation of phenols can be brought about by a one-pot method utilizing Et2Zn/ CH2I2 modification: Tetrahedron Lett., 30, 5215 (1989).
Allylic bromides are converted to homoallylic iodides by the Simmons-Smith reagent in the presence of CuI.2LiI in THF: J. Org. Chem., 54, 5202 (1989).
Wolcott, C. A.; Green, I. X.; Silbaugh, T. L.; Xu, Y.; Campbell, C. T. Energetics of Adsorbed CH2 and CH on Pt(111) by Calorimetry: The Dissociative Adsorption of Diiodomethane. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118 (50), 29310-29321.
Wang, Y.; Sang, D. K.; Du, Z.; Zhang, C.; Tian, M.; Mi, J. Interfacial Structures, Surface Tensions, and Contact Angles of Diiodomethane on Fluorinated Polymers. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118 (19), 10143-10152.
Gefahrenhinweise (EU): H302-H332-H315-H319-H335
Harmful if swallowed. Harmful if inhaled. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause respiratory irritation.
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wear protective gloves and eye/face protection. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.