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PIPES (Piperazine-N,N?-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid), is frequently used as a buffering agent in biochemistry. PIPES has pKa near the physiological pH which makes it useful in cell culture work. PIPES has been documented minimizing lipid loss when buffering glutaraldehyde histology in plant and animal tissues and has a negligible capacity to bind divalent ions. Fixation of fungal zoospores for fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy was optimal with a combination of glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in PIPES buffer is done.
MJ Alowitz.; MM Scherer. Kinetics of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr (VI) reduction by iron metal. Environmental Science & Technology.2002, 36, (3), 299-306.
JB Olmsted, GG Borisy. Ionic and nucleotide requirements for microtubule polymerization in vitro. Biochemistry. 1975, 14, (13), 2996-3005.