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Amines are chemical compounds having the general formula R3N (R is alkyl or aryl). Amines are derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. Depending on the number of R groups (alkyl or aryl group), amines are classified as primary, secondary and tertiary amines. In organic chemistry, amines are used in the synthesis of numerous derivatives which are endowed with useful properties, such as amino alcohols, amino acids, amides, lactams, imino derivatives, azo compounds, hydrazines, hydrazones, and ureas.
Amines and its derivatives have a wide range of biological functions, and play an essential role in biology in the form of an amino acid. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and peptides. Apart from proteins, amino acids perform critical roles in processes such as neurotransmitter transport and biosynthesis. In pharmaceutical research, amine derivatives play a vital role. Many drugs contain amino compounds or their derivatives, which include antiviral and antibacterial drugs.
In the chemical industry, amino compounds and other derived compounds are used for a number of applications. Amines act as good ligands in coordination chemistry. Amides are used in fibers and thermoplastics. Most of the azo compounds are employed as dyes and pigments in the textile industry. Some of the azo compounds are also used as indicators. Hydrazide compounds are used in paint and adhesive thermoset applications. Hydrazine derivatives are used as foaming agents and oxygen scavengers.