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Benzothiazole is an aromatic heterocyclic compound consisting of a five- membered 1,3-thiazole ring fused to a benzene ring. The nine atoms of the bicyclic structure and the attached substituents are coplanar. This heterocyclic scaffold is readily substituted at the unique methyne centre in the thiazole ring. It is a thermally stable electron-withdrawing moiety. Furthermore, it is a weak base having varied activities in biological, bioorganic, and medicinal chemistry with applications in drug discovery. Its aromaticity makes it relatively stable, although as a heterocycle, it has reactive sites, which allow for functionalization.
Benzothiazole and its derivatives encompass an attractive heterocyclic class displaying practical applications ranging from medicine to photography and agriculture. Benzothiazoles form a part of many compounds showing biological activities such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anthelmintic, and anti-diabetic activities. Furthermore, they have also found application in industry as anti-oxidants and vulcanisation accelerators. Various benzothiazoles, such as 2-aryl benzothiazole, have received much attention due to their unique structure and their uses as radioactive amyloid imagining agents. They also found numerous applications in dyes such as thioflavin. Some drugs containing this group are used in treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in a dopamine agonist of the non-ergoline class.