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Bicyclo compounds are a class of saturated compounds consisting of two fused rings, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. Fusion of the rings can occur in three ways (a) across a bond between two atoms - for example, decalin (b) across a sequence of atoms (bridgehead) - for example, norbornane (c) or at a single atom spirocyclic, forming a spiro compound.
Bicyclic heterocycles are key intermediates in drug synthesis which can be classified as (i) nitrogen containing compounds such as quinazolines, indoles, benzimidazoles, and purines (ii) sulfur containing heterocycles namely thiazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidines, thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidines, and thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines, and (iii) oxygen containing heterocycles such as oxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidines. Some of the bicyclic core structure compounds are used as kinase inhibitors, which are in turn used for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Bicyclic compounds are also used as a 1-antagonist based on a quinazoline scaffold, for antihypertensives, and for the treatment of benign prostate hypertrophy. Various derivatives of penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems contain a bicyclic heterocycle, and are used as anti-infectives.