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Borate esters are alkyl or aryl organic compounds of the type B(OR)3, and are precursors for the boric acid derivatives. Trimethyl borate is used as a precursor to boronic esters for Suzuki couplings. It is used as a solvent or a catalyst for the production of resins, waxes, paints, varnishes. It is also used as a methylation agent and a boron source in organic reaction to manufacture biocides, flame retardants for textile, in welding fluxes, anti-oxidants, corrosion inhibitors, tackifiers for elastomers and rubbers, cross-linking agents for polymers, dehydrating agents and plastic stabilizers. Direct amidation of carboxylic acids and transamidation of primary amides can be achieved with borate esters.
Borate esters show properties such as antiwear, antifriction and oxidation stability, and therefore are employed in lubricating systems. Borate esters of glycol monoethers are useful as liquid desiccants for drying gases, as stabilizers, and as non-aqueous hydraulic fluids. Borates possess electron-deficient ôpö orbits in boron and therefore they are employed as catalyst in triboreduction of tin compounds on rubbing surfaces (See: Hu, J.; Hu, Y.; Du, Z.; Liu, C. Synergistic antiwear properties between borates and organic tin compounds in lubricants. Petroleum & Coal 2007, 49 (2), 80-85).