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Carbazoles [9-Azafluorene; Dibenzo(b,d)pyrrole; 9H-Carbazole] are tricyclic aromatic compounds in which two benzene rings are fused on either side of a pyrrole ring. The structure is related to an indole structure in which a second benzene ring is fused onto the five-membered ring at the (2,3) positions of indole. Several synthetic routes have been reported for carbazoles owing to their applications. As carbazoles possess desirable electronic and charge transport properties, as well as large pi-conjugated system, various functional groups are easily introduced into the structurally rigid carbazolyl ring. The structure of carbazoles permits extensive potential applications in the field of chemistry (photoelectrical material, dyes, supramolecular recognition) and medicinal chemistry (antitumor, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, psychotropic, anti-oxidative).
In past decades, carbozole has been widely used for the preparation of various derivatives and also utilized for the preparation of some pharmaceutical drugs. The carbazole ring is also present in a variety of naturally occurring medicinally active substances.