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Ammonium chloride finds its use as a flux in preparing metals for galvanizing, soldering or tin coating. While mainly referred as a nitrogen source fertilizer, it is also used in cleaning tip of soldering iron, hair shampoo as a thickening agent, some batteries as electrolyte, tanning, textile printing, dyeing, and cleaning products. In laboratories it is used to produce cooling baths and for producing buffers. Along with certain metals, it is used for effecting certain reductions in organic synthesis. It can be used as a precursor to ammonium cyanate, which is employed in the Wöhler synthesis of urea. It facilitates several organic transformations in a mild and efficient manner - for example in Ulmann coupling, cross-aldol condensation, Claisen rearrangement, reduction, thia-Michael addition and synthesis of several monocyclic, fused or spiro bicyclic nitrogen heterocycles.
Pal, R. Recent Progress of Ammonium Chloride as Catalyst in Organic Synthesis. IOSR J. Appl. Chem. 2013, 4 (2), 86-99.
Chernyshev, A. V.; Tarasov, P. A.; Semianov, K. A.; Nekrasov, V. M.; Hoekstra, A. G.; Maltsev, V. P. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: Theoretical modeling and experimental verification. J. Theor. Biol. 2008, 251 (1), 93-107.
Peppin, S. S. L.; Huppert, H. E.; Worster, M. G. Steady-state solidification of aqueous ammonium chloride. J. Fluid Mech. 2008, 599, 465-476.
Hazard Statements: H302-H319
Harmful if swallowed. Causes serious eye irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P280i-P264-P305+P351+P338-P301+P312a-P337+P313-P501a
Wear eye/face protection. Wash thoroughly after handling. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER/doctor if you feel unwell. If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.