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The surface modification of graphite felt with concentrated sulfuric acid has led to dramatic improvement in the electroactivity of this material in the vanadium redox cell. A cell resistance of 2.50 ? cm2 and energy efficiency of 91% were obtained in the vanadium cell, after the graphite felt electrode material was treated with boiling concentrated sulfuric acid for 5 hour. Graphite felt treated thermally at 400°C exhibited the greatest improvement in performance of the vanadium cell. Graphite electrode are used in primarily in electric furnace steel manufacturing. It can provide high level of electric conductivity and capability of sustaining the extremely high level of generating heat. It is also used in the refinement of steel and similar smelting process.
Bianting Sun.; Maria Skyllas-Kazacos. Chemical modification of graphite electrode materials for vanadium redox flow battery applicationpart II. Acid treatments. Electrochim. Acta. 1992, 37 (13),2459-2465.
B. Sun.; M. Skyllas-Kazacos. Modification of graphite electrode materials for vanadium redox flow battery applicationI. Thermal treatment Electrochim. Acta. 1992, 37 (7),1253-1260.