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Xylene is used as a solvent in pharmaceutical, printing, rubber, and leather industries. It is an important component of ink, rubber and adhesives as well as in thinning paints and varnishes. It is used in the laboratory to make baths with dry ice to cool reaction vessels, and as a solvent to remove synthetic immersion oil from the microscope objective in light microscopy. It finds application as a short-term hydrophobic clearing agent of tissue samples by histologists. It is a precursor for the preparation of xylene dichlorides, xylyl bromide, terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate.
Lim, D.; Jang, J.; Kim, T.; Shim, S. E.; Baeck, S. H. Selective hydrodealkylation of C 9+ aromatics to benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) over a Pt/H-ZSM-5 catalyst. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem. 2015, 407, 147-151.
Al-Khattaf, S. S.; Ali, S. A.; Osman, M. S.; Aitani, A. M. Influence of toluene-tetramethylbenzene transalkylation on heavy aromatics conversion to xylenes. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2015, 21, 1077-1088.
Hazard Statements: H226-H304-H312-H315-H319-H332-H335-H373
Flammable liquid and vapour. May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways. Harmful in contact with skin. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. Harmful if inhaled. May cause respiratory irritation. May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.
Precautionary Statements: P210-P233-P235-P240-P241-P242-P243-P260-P264b-P271-P280-P301+P310-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P312-P314-P331-P332+P313-P337+P313-P363-P370+P378q-P501c
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking. Keep container tightly closed. Keep cool. Ground/bond container and receiving equipment. Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/ equipment. Use only non-sparking tools. Take precautionary measures against static discharge. Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell. Do NOT induce vomiting. If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention. If eye irritation persists: Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. In case of fire: Use CO2, dry chemical, or foam Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant