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Toluene is widely used as an organic solvent in various industries like paints, pharmaceuticals, dyes, agrochemicals and polymers. It is used as an additive in gasoline and improves octane ratings, as a fullerene indicator, in paint thinners and silicone sealants, as a coolant in sodium cold traps used in nuclear reactor system loops and as a fuel for both two-stroke and four-stroke engines. It is also used as a raw material in the production of benzene, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, toluene diisocyanate, benzyl-tert-butyl peroxide, xylene and many other chemical products. It plays an important role in biochemistry experiments to break open red blood cells in order to extract haemoglobin as well as used in the removal of cocaine from coca leaves to make coca-cola syrup. Further, it used as a standard material for chromatography and as an analytical reagent.
Mhaske, A. A.; Dhadke, P. M. Extraction separation studies of Rh, Pt and Pd using Cyanex 921 in toluenea possible application to recovery from spent catalysts. Hydrometallurgy 2001, 61 (2), 143-150.
Zhi, H.; Lu, C.; Zhang, Q.; Luo, J. A new PEG-1000-based dicationic ionic liquid exhibiting temperature-dependent phase behavior with toluene and its application in one-pot synthesis of benzopyrans. Chem. Commun. 2009, (20), 2878-2880.
Hazard Statements: H225-H304-H315-H319-H336-H361d-H373
Highly flammable liquid and vapour. May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Suspected of damaging the unborn child. May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.
Precautionary Statements: P201-P202-P210-P233-P235-P240-P241-P242-P243-P260-P264b-P271-P280i-P281-P301+P310-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P308+P313-P331-P332+P313-P363-P370+P378q-P501c
Obtain special instructions before use. Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood. Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking. Keep container tightly closed. Keep cool. Ground/bond container and receiving equipment. Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/ equipment. Use only non-sparking tools. Take precautionary measures against static discharge. Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear eye/face protection. Use personal protective equipment as required. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention. Do NOT induce vomiting. If skin irritation occurs: Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. In case of fire: Use CO2, dry chemical, or foam Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant