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Lithium chloride is useful for the production of lithium metal and for the generation of Mn(0) species which can be used in free radical cyclizations. It can serve as a flame colorant to generate dark red flames, a brazing flux for aluminum in automobiles, a hygrometer and a desiccant for drying air streams. On exposure to air, it becomes a solution with the concentration directly related to relative humidity of the atmosphere and hence serves as a relative humidity standard in calibrating hygrometers. Apart from being a source of chloride, it serves as an additive in the Stille reaction in organic synthesis and to precipitate RNA from cellular extracts. Being biologically significant, it finds applications in a wide variety of assays to study cell-fate and neurobiology. Lithium chloride has been found to inhibit virus infection.
In DMF, acts as a base in dehydrohalogenation reactions; see, for example: Org. Synth. Coll., 4, 162 (1963). See also lithium carbonate (preceding entry). A comparison has been made of its activity with or without microwave irradiation for promoting the Knoevenagel condensation in N-methylpyrrolidinone, e.g. of malononitrile: Chem. Commun., 773 (1998).
For use in the dealkylation of activated aralkyl ethers, see: Synthesis, 287 (1989).
In the Wadsworth-Emmons olefination reaction, Triethylamine, A12646, was effective as base in combination a number of metal salts of which Li halides gave the highest yields: J. Org. Chem., 50, 2624 (1985).
Additive in the Stille coupling reaction of alkyl and arylstannanes with aryl triflates, preventing decomposition of the palladium complex catalyst: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 4630 (1984); 108, 3033 (1986); see also Tri-n-butyltin chloride, A10746.
The combination of LiCl and water in DMSO provides a mild and efficient method for deprotection of THP ethers: J. Org. Chem., 61, 6038 (1996), and ethylene acetals: Tetrahedron Lett., 38, 7271 (1997).
Kowalczyk, S. W.; Wells, D. B.; Aksimentiev, A.; Dekker, C. Slowing down DNA Translocation through a Nanopore in Lithium Chloride. Nano Lett. 2012, 12 (2), 1038-1044.
Deng, L. J.; Liu, J.; Huang, J. Q.; Hud, Y.; Chen, M.; Lan, Y.; Chen, J. H.; Lei, A.; Yang, Z. Effect of Lithium Chloride on Tuning the Reactivity of Pauson-Khand Reactions Catalyzed by Palladium-Tetramethylthiourea. Synthesis 2007, 2565-2570.
Fumo, N.; Goswami, D. Y. Study of an Aqueous Lithium Chloride Desiccant System: Air Dehumidification and Desiccant Regeneration. Sol. Energy 2002, 72 (4), 51-361.
Hazard Statements: H302-H315-H319-H335
Harmful if swallowed. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause respiratory irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P261-P280a-P305+P351+P338-P304+P340-P405-P501a
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wear protective gloves and eye/face protection. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Store locked up. Dispose of contents/container in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations.