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Nitrobenzene is used as a solvent and as a starting material in the organic synthesis for the preparation of aniline, benzidine, azobenzene, nitrosobenzene, phenylhydroxylamine and acetaminophen. It is also used as a solvent for electrophilic reagents in synthetic chemistry. Further, it is used to prevent the unpleasant odor in shoe, floor and metal polishes. It acts as a precursor to rubber chemicals, azo dyes and pharmaceuticals.
For selective reduction to phenylhydroxylamine with hydrazine hydrate in the presence of rhodium, see: Org. Synth. Coll., 8, 16 (1993).
Electrophilic iodination of the deactivated ring has been effected with N-Iodosuccinimide, A14320, in triflic acid: J. Org. Chem., 58, 3194 (1993).
Commonly used, high dielectric constant solvent, e.g. in Friedel-Crafts reactions. CAUTION! Exothermic reactions can occur with aluminum chloride.
Fu, L.; Cai, W.; Wang, A.; Zheng, Y. Photocatalytic hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline over tungsten oxide-silver nanowires. Mater. Lett. 2015, 142, 201-203.
Boukobza, M.; Garnier, R.; Cleophax, C.; Baud, F. J. CT and MRI findings and follow-up after massive nitrobenzene ingestion. A case report. J. Neurol. Sci. 2015, 357 (1-2), 322-325.
Hazard Statements: H227-H301+H311+H331-H350-H360F-H372
Combustible liquid. Toxic if swallowed. Toxic in contact with skin. Toxic if inhaled. May cause cancer. May damage fertility. Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.
Precautionary Statements: P201-P202-P210-P235-P260-P264b-P270-P271-P281-P301+P310-P302+P352-P304+P340-P308+P313-P311-P312-P330-P361-P363-P370+P378q-P501c
Obtain special instructions before use. Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood. Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking. Keep cool. Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Use personal protective equipment as required. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention. Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. Rinse mouth. Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. In case of fire: Use CO2, dry chemical, or foam Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant