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Tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride, 1M soln. in THF is used as a reactant for the preparation of triple monoamine reuptake inhibitors as a new generation of antidepressants, oligoribonucleotides with phosphonate-modified linkages, conjugated dienoic acid esters using Suzuki coupling reactions and polyacetylenic glucosides. It plays an important role in aryl alkyl alcohols through Nozaki-Hiyama allylation catalyzed by chiral bipyridyldiol ligands and chromium trichloride. It is also used as a catalyst for the silylation reactions. In addition, it is used as a source of fluoride ion in organic solvents as well as for the deprotection of silyl ether groups.
Mild catalyst for the silylation of OH by silazanes: Tetrahedron Lett., 35, 8409 (1994), or by hydrosilanes and disilanes: Tetrahedron Lett., 35, 8413 (1994). See Appendix 4.
Specific reagent for the cleavage of silyl ethers, including TBDMS: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 94, 6190 (1972), (see tert-Butyldimethylchlorosilane, A13064), as well as the more stable TBDPS: Org. Synth. Coll., 9, 4 (1998), and TIPS: J. Org. Chem., 45, 4797 (1980); (see also tert-Butyldiphenylchlorosilane, A12721 and Chlorotriisopropylsilane, A17376).
Ester enolates can be displaced from silicon, and trapped by reaction with carbonyl compounds without ɑ-hydrogens: Tetrahedron Lett., 1699 (1976). Under similar conditions, ketones with ɑ-hydrogens are converted under kinetic control to their silyl enol ethers with high (Z)-stereoselectivity (see Ethyl (trimethylsilyl)acetate, A17707): J. Am. Chem. Soc., 98, 2346 (1976); Org. Synth. Coll., 7, 512 (1990):
For the cleavage of disilanes to give "metal-free" silyl anions, see Hexamethyldisilane, A13155.
Promotes the directed aldol condensation of silyl enol ethers with aldehydes at low temperatures under very mild conditions: J. Org. Chem., 48, 932 (1983); alkali metal fluorides give poor results.
Reagent for deprotection of N-Boc groups under mild conditions: Tetrahedron Lett., 43, 589 (2002).
Many other examples exist where the reagent acts as a base in organic synthesis:
Acylation of hindered OH groups: Tetrahedron Lett., 1691 (1977). Nitro-aldol formation from aldehydes and nitro compounds (Henry reaction) facilitated by high pressure: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 23, 617 (1984). Dieckmann-type cyclization of a diester: Org. Synth. Coll., 8, 71 (1993). Catalyzes the regioselective N-alkylation of silylated purines with chloromethyl ethers: Helv. Chim. Acta, 72, 1495 (1989).
For nucleophilic displacement of halide or tosylate by TBAF in the preparation of alkyl and acyl fluorides, see: J. Org. Chem., 49, 3216 (1984); Org. Synth. Coll., 8, 258 (1993).
Fluoride ion as a base in organic synthesis: Chem. Rev., 80, 429 (1980). Synthetic aspects of the use of organosilicon compounds under nucleophilic catalysis conditions: Tetrahedron, 44, 2675 (1988). For a brief feature on uses of TBAF, see: Synlett, 2125 (2002).
Zhang, F.; Wu, X.; Wang, L.; Liu, H.; Zhao, Y. General and efficient one-pot synthesis of novel sugar/heterocyclic (aryl) 1, 2-diketones from sugar terminal alkynes by Sonogashira/tetra-n-butylammonium permanganate oxidation. Carbohydr. Res. 2015, 417 41-51.
Parr, B. T.; Economou, C.; Herzon, S. B. A concise synthesis of (+)-batzelladine B from simple pyrrole-based starting materials. Nature 2015, 525 (7570), 507-510.
Hazard Statements: H225-H314-H335-H336-H351-H373
Highly flammable liquid and vapour. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause respiratory irritation. May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Suspected of causing cancer. May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure.
Precautionary Statements: P201-P202-P210-P233-P235-P240-P241-P242-P243-P260-P264b-P271-P281-P301+P330+P331-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P310-P363-P370+P378q-P501c
Obtain special instructions before use. Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood. Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking. Keep container tightly closed. Keep cool. Ground/bond container and receiving equipment. Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/ equipment. Use only non-sparking tools. Take precautionary measures against static discharge. Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Use personal protective equipment as required. IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. In case of fire: Use CO2, dry chemical, or foam Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant