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The Ullmann-Goldberg reaction with anilines to give diarylamines can be carried out with Cu powder in water: Synth. Commun., 23, 1447 (1993). The reaction in DMF has been shown to be greatly accelerated by ultrasonic irradiation: Synth. Commun., 19, 2077 (1989). Ullmann-Goldberg reaction with phenols to give diaryl ethers gives improved results with pyridine as a co-catalyst: Synth. Commun., 25, 1077 (1995)./n
Hazard Statements: H315-H319-H500
Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. May form combustible dust concentrations in air
Precautionary Statements: P264b-P280-P302+P352-P305+P351+P338-P332+P313-P337+P313-P362
Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention. If eye irritation persists: Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.