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Xanthine and xanthine oxidase system can be used to produce superoxide radicals.
Su-Shu Pan and Nicholas R. Bachur. Xanthine Oxidase Catalyzed Reductive Cleavage of Anthracycline Antibiotics and Free Radical Formation. Molecular Pharmacology. 1980, 17 (1),95-99.
Mario Thevis,; Georg Opfermann,; Oliver Krug,; Wilhelm Schänzer. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric characterization and quantitation of xanthine derivatives using isotopically labelled analogues: an application for equine doping control analysis. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 2004, 18 (14),1553-1560.
Hazard Statements: H315-H319-H335
Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye irritation. May cause respiratory irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P261-P264b-P271-P280-P302+P352-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P312-P332+P313-P337+P313-P362-P501c
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention. If eye irritation persists: Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant