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4-(Dimethylamino)pyridine is a useful nucleophilic catalyst for various reactions viz. esterifications with anhydrides, the Baylis-Hillman reaction, hydrosilylations, tritylation and Steglich rearrangement. It is also an effective catalyst for transesterification of beta-keto esters and silylation of alcohols.
Hypernucleophilic catalyst. Greatly accelerates the acylation of hindered, including tertiary, alcohols; reviews: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 17, 569 (1978). Chem. Soc. Rev., 12, 129 (1983). Catalyst for acylation of alcohols using mixed anhydrides of hindered carboxylic acids with methanesulfonic acid: Synth. Commun., 12, 727 (1982), and with mixed carboxylic anhydrides: J. Org. Chem., 50, 560 (1985). In the Yamaguchi method of macrocyclic lactonization the mixed anhydride formed with 2,4,6-Trichlorobenzoyl chloride, L14159 is cyclized with 2 equiv. of DMAP; high dilution conditions are not required: Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 52, 1989 (1979). For improved method in a high yield synthesis of erythronolide A, see: J. Org. Chem., 55, 7 (1990).
Greatly increases the rate of ester and thio ester formation in the carbodiimide method of coupling (Steglich esterification): Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 17, 522 (1978). For similar use in macrolactonizations, see: J. Org. Chem., 50, 2394 (1985), and in carbodiimide peptide coupling reactions: Int. J. Pept. Prot. Res., 18, 459 (1981). For peptide reagents, see Appendix 6.
Effective catalyst for transesterification of ß-keto esters in toluene: J. Org. Chem., 50, 3618 (1985), and for smooth decarboalkoxylation of enolizable ß-keto esters in toluene containing a small amount of water: J. Org. Chem., 54, 3474 (1989). Under these conditions, other bases (N,N-dimethylaniline, pyridine, tetra-n-pentylammonium bromide) are ineffective.
Also useful as a catalyst for various alkylations. For use in formation of trityl ethers, see: Tetrahedron Lett., 95, (1979); extension to mono- and di-methoxytrityl ethers: Tetrahedron Lett., 21, 3899 (1980); J. Org. Chem., 47, 571 (1982); Chem. Lett., 15 (1982); J. Am. Chem. Soc., 104, 1316 (1982). Useful in silylation of alcohols to give TBDMS ethers: Tetrahedron Lett., 99, (1979).
Catalyst in a simple preparation of N-Boc-amides, using Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate, A14708: Acta Chem. Scand. B, 40, 745 (1986); and also of N-Boc-pyrroles: Org. Synth. Coll., 9, 121 (1998).
Reacts with thionyl chloride to form the chlorosulfinyl chloride, an effective reagent for the conversion of acids to their acid chlorides: Synth. Commun., 12, 1139 (1982), and for the dehydration of aldoximes to nitriles: Synthesis, 472 (1983).
For a brief feature on the uses of this reagent in synthesis, see: Synlett, 1568 (2003). Review of developments in the search for optimal reactivity and selectivity with 4-(dialkylamino)pyridines: Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 43, 5436 (2004).
Xue, F.; Liu, Z.; Wan, N.; Zhu, H.; Zheng, Y. Engineering the epoxide hydrolase from Agromyces mediolanus for enhanced enantioselectivity and activity in the kinetic resolution of racemic epichlorohydrin. RCS Adv. 2015, 5 (40), 31525-31532.
Dobkowski, J.; Kijak, M.; Sazanovich, I. V.; Waluk, J. Solvent-Controlled Excited State Relaxation Path of 4-Acetyl-4'-(dimethylamino)biphenyl. J. Phys. Chem. B 2015, 119 (24), 7294-7307.
Hazard Statements: H301-H310-H315-H318-H331-H370
Toxic if swallowed. Fatal in contact with skin. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye damage. Toxic if inhaled. Causes damage to organs.
Precautionary Statements: P260-P262-P264b-P270-P271-P280-P301+P310-P302+P350-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P307+P311-P310-P311-P330-P332+P313-P361-P363-P501c
Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. IF ON SKIN: Gently wash with plenty of soap and water. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF exposed: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Rinse mouth. If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention. Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant