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Phosphorus(V) oxide is used as a drying and dehydrating agent, a condensation reagent in organic synthesis and a laboratory reagent. It is also used in sugar refining and in fire extinguishing. Phosphorus pentoxide in DMSO forms an Onodera reagent which oxidizes alcohols. It is capable of converting mineral acids to anhydrides.
Silylates primary and sec-alcohols and phenols, in the presence of p-TsOH as catalyst. If the substrate contains acid-sensitive groups, PPTS can be used: Tetrahedron Lett., 4261 (1978). See Appendix 4.
In the presence of FeCl3, reacts with benzotrichlorides to give substituted benzoyl chlorides in good yields: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 808 (1977).
Reacts with P2O5 to give trimethylsilyl polyphosphate ('PPSE'), a milder and more convenient dehydrating agent then polyphosphoric acid. For examples, and related reagents, see Phosphorus(V) oxide, A13348."
Meier, M. S. Phosphorus(V) Oxide. In Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis; Pacquette, L., Ed.; J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 2004.
Ebadi, M.; Mirdamadian, Z.; Ghanbari, D.; Moradi, L. The Effect of Aminated Carbon Nanotube and Phosphorus Pentoxide on the Thermal Stability and Flame Retardant Properties of the Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene. J. Cluster Sci. 2014, 25 (2), 541-548.
Hazard Statements: H314-H335
Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause respiratory irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P260-P264b-P271-P280-P301+P330+P331-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P310-P363-P501c
Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant