L-Glutamine is involved in many metabolic processes and regulates acid-base balance in the kidney. It is an important amino acid for the incorporation of ammonium ions into biomolecules. It is a vital component of culture media that serves as a major energy source for cells in culture. As a component in oral supplementation, it is useful for patients who have advanced stages of cancer to reverse cachexia (i.e. muscle wasting). It is also used for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a urinary condition called cystinuria, sickle cell anemia and for alcohol withdrawal support. It finds applications in patients with HIV (AIDS) to prevent weight loss.
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Bonet, D. S.; Chisholm, D. J.; Holst, J. J.; Greenfield, J. R. L-glutamine and whole protein restore first-phase insulin response and increase glucagon-like Peptide-1 in type 2 diabetes patients. Nutrients 2015, 7 (4), 2101-2108.