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Diethyl oxalate is used to prepare active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), plastics and dyestuff intermediates. It is also used as a solvent for cellulose esters, ethers, resins, perfumes and lacquers for electronics. It is involved in the transesterification reaction with phenol to get dipheny oxalate. It is also involved in the Claisen condensation ketosteroids to prepare glyoxalyl derivatives. Further, it is used to prepare sym-1,4-diphenyl-1,4-dihydro-1,2,4,5-polytetrazine. In addition to this, it is utilized in the microemulsion synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles.
Base-promoted condensation with ketones, esters, nitriles, etc. yields ɑ-ethoxalyl derivatives, which with aldehydes, e.g. formaldehyde, yield ɑß-unsaturated compounds: J. Org. Chem., 42, 1180 (1977). Condensation with the activated methyl group of o-nitrotoluenes can lead to indole-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester: Org. Synth. Coll., 5, 567 (1973), or to o-nitrophenylacetic acids which can be converted to indole-2-acetic acid esters: Org. Synth. Coll., 9, 601 (1998).
With the benzylic phosphoranes, gives stereoselectively (Z)-3-aryl-2-ethoxyacrylates: Synthesis, 958 (1989).
Reaction with Grignard reagents at low temperatures gives ɑ-keto esters: Synth. Commun., 11, 943 (1981); Org. Prep. Proced. Int., 21, 501 (1989). Similarly, vinyl Grignards give 2-oxo-3-alkenoic acids: Synthesis, 564 (1988).
Ding, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, C.; Liu, K.; Xiao, H.; Kong, F.; Chen, J. Hydrogenation of diethyl oxalate over Cu/SiO2 catalyst with enhanced activity and stability: Contribution of the spatial restriction by varied pores of support. Appl. Catal., A 2015, 508, 68-79.
Afrooz, M.; Dehghani, H. First application of diethyl oxalate as efficient additive in high performance dye-sensitized solar cells based on iodide/triiodide electrolyte. Electrochim. Acta 2015, 174, 521-531.
Hazard Statements: H227-H302-H319
Combustible liquid. Harmful if swallowed. Causes serious eye irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P210-P264b-P270-P280-P301+P312-P305+P351+P338-P330-P370+P378q-P501c
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Rinse mouth. In case of fire: Use CO2, dry chemical, or foam Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant