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Maleic acid is used as a precursor to fumaric acid, dimethyl maleate and glyoxalic acid. It is an electrophile and acts as dienophine in Diels-Alder reactions. It reacts with drugs to form more stable addition salts like indacaterol maleate, carfenazine, chlorpheniramine, pyrilamine, methylergonovine and thiethylperazine. Its maleate ion is useful in biochemistry as an inhibitor of transaminase reactions.
Tsukigawa, K.; Liao, L.; Nakamura, H.; Fang, J.; Greish, K.; Otagiri, M.; Maeda, H. Synthesis and therapeutic effect of styrene-maleic acid copolymer-conjugated pirarubicin. Cancer Sci. 2015, 106 (3), 270-278.
Filippov, A.; Tarabukina, E.; Simonova, M.; Kirila, T.; Fundueanu, G.; Harabagiu, V.; Constantin, M.; Popescu, I. Synthesis and Investigation of Double Stimuli-Responsive Behavior of N-Isopropylacrylamide and Maleic Acid Copolymer in Solutions. J. Macromol. Sci. Part B Phys. 2015, 54 (9), 1105-1121.
Hazard Statements: H302-H312-H314-H317-H335
Harmful if swallowed. Harmful in contact with skin. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause an allergic skin reaction. May cause respiratory irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P260-P264b-P270-P271-P272-P280-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P310-P330-P331-P333+P313-P363-P501c
Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant