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Phthalic anhydride is used in the preparation of primary amines. It is used as a precursor to prepare anthraquinone, phthalein, rhodamine, phthalocyanine, fluorescein and xanthene dyes. It serves as an important intermediate in the plastics industry, dyes, resins and pigments. It is used as a monomer for synthetic resins such as glyptal, alkyd resins and polyester resins. It plays a vital role in the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics. Further, it acts as a curing agent for epoxy resins, anti-scaling agents, plating agents, surface treating agents, ion exchange agents, paint additives, adhesives, sealant chemicals and potential antibacterial agent.
For examples of formation of phthalimides from amines, see: Org. Synth. Coll., 4, 106 (1963); 5, 973 (1973). As an alternative to hydrazinolysis, ɑ-amino acids can also be quantitatively recovered from their phthaloyl derivatives by prolonged reaction with aqueous methylamine at room temperature: Can. J. Chem., 48, 3572 (1970).
Can be used for the dehydration of nitro aldols to nitroalkenes; see, e.g.: Org. Synth. Coll., 7, 396 (1990).
Reaction with H2O2 gives monoperphthalic acid, useful in peroxidation reactions; see, e.g.: Org. Synth. Coll., 3, 619 (1955); 5, 805 (1973). With urea hydrogen peroxide, provides a superior system for converting N-heteroaromatics and tert-amines to their N-oxides: Chem. Ber., 125, 1965 (1992)
Liu, Y.; Gu, Y.; Hou, Y.; Yang, Y.; Deng, S.; Wei, Z. Hydrophobic activated carbon supported Ni-based acid-resistant catalyst for selective hydrogenation of phthalic anhydride to phthalide. Chem. Eng. J. 2015, 275, 271-280.
Lin, Z.; Ierapetritou, M.; Nikolakis, V. Phthalic anhydride production from hemicellulose solutions: Technoeconomic analysis and life cycle assessment. AlChE J. 2015, 61 (11), 3708-3718.
Hazard Statements: H302-H315-H317-H318-H334-H335-H500
Harmful if swallowed. Causes skin irritation. May cause an allergic skin reaction. Causes serious eye damage. May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled. May cause respiratory irritation. May form combustible dust concentrations in air
Precautionary Statements: P261-P264b-P270-P271-P272-P280-P285-P301+P312-P302+P352-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P310-P330-P333+P313-P342+P311-P362-P501c
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. In case of inadequate ventilation wear respiratory protection. IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Rinse mouth. If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention. If experiencing respiratory symptoms: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant