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Diiodomethane is used to determine the density of minerals and other solid samples due to its high density. It is used as an optical contact liquid to determine the refractive index of certain gemstones. In simmons-smith reaction, it acts as a reagent to generate methylene (carbine) free radical. It reacts with olefins to prepare cyclopropanes with high stereo specificity.
The combination with Zinc-copper couple, L09811, generates ICH2ZnI, the reagent for the classical Simmons-Smith cyclopropanation of alkenes: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 80, 5323 (1958); examples: Org. Synth. Coll., 5, 85 (1973). Review: Org. React., 20, 1 (1973). Alternative systems include Zn powder/ Cu(I) halide: J. Org. Chem., 35, 2057 (1970); ultrasound irradiation: Tetrahedron Lett., 23, 2729 (1982), thermal activation: Synth. Commun., 22, 2801 (1992), or catalytic TMS-Cl: J. Org. Chem., 59, 2671 (1994) with ordinary zinc; or Zn/Ag couple: Tetrahedron Lett., 4593 (1972); 3327 (1974). Other reagents include trialkylaluminums: J. Org. Chem., 50, 4412 (1985): Org. Synth. Coll., 8, 321 (1993) and the most widely-used modification, diethylzinc: Tetrahedron, 24, 53 (1968); J. Org. Chem., 42, 3031 (1977); for use in the ring-expansion of ketones, see: Org. Synth. Coll., 6, 327 (1988). For use of a boronic acid-derived chiral dioxaborolane ligand in enantioselective cyclopropanantion, see: Tetrahedron Lett., 37, 7925 (1996); Org. Synth., 76, 86 (1998):
Selective ortho-methylation of phenols can be brought about by a one-pot method utilizing Et2Zn/ CH2I2 modification: Tetrahedron Lett., 30, 5215 (1989).
Allylic bromides are converted to homoallylic iodides by the Simmons-Smith reagent in the presence of CuI.2LiI in THF: J. Org. Chem., 54, 5202 (1989).
Wolcott, C. A.; Green, I. X.; Silbaugh, T. L.; Xu, Y.; Campbell, C. T. Energetics of Adsorbed CH2 and CH on Pt(111) by Calorimetry: The Dissociative Adsorption of Diiodomethane. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118 (50), 29310-29321.
Wang, Y.; Sang, D. K.; Du, Z.; Zhang, C.; Tian, M.; Mi, J. Interfacial Structures, Surface Tensions, and Contact Angles of Diiodomethane on Fluorinated Polymers. J. Phys. Chem. C 2014, 118 (19), 10143-10152.
Hazard Statements: H301-H315-H318-H335
Toxic if swallowed. Causes skin irritation. Causes serious eye damage. May cause respiratory irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P261-P264b-P270-P271-P280-P301+P310-P302+P352-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P310-P312-P330-P332+P313-P362-P501c
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. Rinse mouth. If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/attention. Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant