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Glyoxal is used to prepare 4,5-dihydroxy-2-imidazolidinone by condensation with urea. It finds application in leather tanning process, textile finishes and paper coatings. It is an important building block in the synthesis of imidazoles. It acts as a solubilizer and cross-linking agent in polymer chemistry. Further, it is used as a fixative for histology to preserve cells in order to examine under a microscope.
For use in the chemoselective hydrolysis of amides in the presence of esters, see Copper(II) chloride dihydrate, A16064 .
For use in the synthesis of bicyclic diketones, see Dimethyl acetone-1,3-dicarboxylate, A14969 .
Kurten, T.; Elm, J.; Prisle, N. L.; Mikkelsen, K. V.; Kampf, C. J.; Waxman, E. M.; Volkamer, R. Computational Study of the Effect of Glyoxal-Sulfate Clustering on the Henrys Law Coefficient of Glyoxal. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119 (19), 4509-4514.
Lawson, S. J.; Selleck, P. W.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Harvey, M. J.; Lerot, C.; Helmig, D.; Ristovski, Z. Seasonal in situ observations of glyoxal and methylglyoxal over the temperate oceans of the Southern Hemisphere. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2015, 15 (1), 223-240.
Hazard Statements: H315-H317-H319-H332-H335-H341
Causes skin irritation. May cause an allergic skin reaction. Causes serious eye irritation. Harmful if inhaled. May cause respiratory irritation. Suspected of causing genetic defects.
Precautionary Statements: P201-P202-P261-P264b-P271-P272-P280-P281-P302+P352-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P308+P313-P333+P313-P337+P313-P362-P501c
Obtain special instructions before use. Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood. Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. Use personal protective equipment as required. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention. If skin irritation or rash occurs: If eye irritation persists: Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant