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It is a substrate for beta-galactosidase, which cleaves the glycosidic bond to give 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-1H-indole, which immediately dimerises to give an intensely blue product. It is also used to detect activity of this enzyme in histochemistry and bacteriology. It is employed as a colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds. They are used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, particularly in the form of enzyme substrates. X-Gal is the substrate of choice for blue-white selection of recombinant bacterial colonies with the lac+ genotype.
Christiaen L, et al. X-gal staining of electroporated sea squirt (Ciona) embryos.Cold Spring Harbor protocols.20092009(12), prot5346.
Kim MY, et al. X-gal inhibits the swarming of Vibrio species.J. Microbiol. Methods.200666(3), 552-555.
Hazard Statements: H302+H312+H332
Harmful if swallowed. Harmful in contact with skin. Harmful if inhaled.
Precautionary Statements: P261-P264b-P270-P271-P280-P301+P312-P302+P352-P304+P340-P312-P330-P363-P501c
Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell. IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. Rinse mouth. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant