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Betaine is an active ingredient in toothpaste to control the symptoms of dryness of the mouth. It is used to treat homocystinuria, which is a defect in the major pathway of methionine biosynthesis. It is also used for boosting the immune system and for improving athletic performance. It is helpful to prevent noncancerous tumors in the colon (colorectal adenomas).
Kapustin, E. A.; Minkov, V. S.; E. V. Boldyreva, E. V. Sarcosine and betaine crystals upon cooling: structural motifs unstable at high pressure become stable at low temperatures. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17 (5), 3534-3543.
Kar, J. R.; Hallsworth, J. E.; Singhal, R. S. Fermentative production of glycine betaine and trehalose from acid whey using Actinopolyspora halophila (MTCC 263). Environ. Technol. Innovation 2015, 3, 68-76.