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Citrate, is used as an anticoagulant and also used as a biological buffer. It is often used to prepare sodium citrate buffer for antigen retrieval of tissue samples. The citrate solution is designed to break protein cross-links, thus, unmasking antigens and epitopes in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections, resulting in enhancing staining intensity of antibodies. Citrate has anticoagulant activity and as a calcium chelator, it forms complexes that disrupt the tendency of blood to clot.
YP Lee.; T Takahashi. An improved colorimetric determination of amino acids with the use of ninhydrin. Analytical Biochemistry. 1972, 14,(1), 71-77.
XZ Shu.; KJ Zhu.; W Song. Novel pH-sensitive citrate cross-linked chitosan film for drug controlled release. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2001, 212,(1), 19-28.