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It is not absorbed in the gut and is frequently used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. actulose is also a food ingredient, better known as galactofructose, with sweet taste and offering beneficial health benefits on digestive health. Also used as a test of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
Tim Vanuytsel et. al. Psychological stress and corticotropin-releasing hormone increase intestinal permeability in humans by a mast cell-dependent mechanism. Gut, 2014, 63(8), 1293-1299.
C P Kelly et. al. Larazotide acetate in patients with coeliac disease undergoing a gluten challenge: a randomised placebo-controlled study. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2013,37,(2), 252-262.