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Melatonin acts as a neurohormone that upregulates antioxidant enzymes and inhibits rat NOS1. It also acts as a particularly significant endogenous antioxidant. Melatonin is a rat NOS1 (nNOS) inhibitor. Melatonin is an activator of MEL-1A-R and MEL-1B-R.
Dubocovich, M.L. Pharmacology and function of melatonin receptors. FASEB J. 1988, 2, (12), 2765-73.
Reiter, R.J., et al. Free radical-mediated molecular damage. Mechanisms for the protective actions of melatonin in the central nervous system. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 2001, 939, 200-15.