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Targets primarily the cell membrane of Gram-positive bacteria and shows little effect against Gram-negative bacteria. Gramicidin is typically used as a topical antimicrobial agent because it also causes hemolysis of red blood cells.
Kondejewski, L.H.; Farmer, S. W.; Wishart, D.S.; Hancock, R.E,W.; Hodges, R.S. Gramicidin S Is Active against Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria. International Journal of Peptide and Protein Research 1996 47 (6), 460-66.