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Triethylamine trihydrofluoride acts as a mild and selective fluorinating agent used in the synthesis of acid fluorides and alkyl fluorides. It is also used in the synthesis of vicinal difluorides from epoxides, 3-fluoroazetidine. It is utilized as a selective reagent for the cleavage of O-silyl groups in carbohydrates, nucleotides and cyanohydrins. It is actively involved in the electrochemical fluorodeiodination of alkyl iodides and fluorodesilylation in beta-lactams.
Convenient mild fluorinating agent which can be handled in glass equipment (long-term storage in glass is not recommended):
Activated halides can be displaced to give the corresponding fluorides J. Fluorine Chem., 15, 423 (1980); 47, 467 (1990). Carbohydrate bromides or mesylates can be converted to fluorinated analogues with inversion of configuration: J. Fluorine Chem., 60, 49 (1993); Tetrahedron Lett., 31, 6527 (1990).
In the presence of NBS, alkenes undergo trans-fluorobromination in high yield: Synthesis, 562 (1987); Liebigs Ann. Chem., 849 (1995); Org. Synth., 76, 159 (1998). Vinyl oxiranes undergo ring opening to give fluorohydrins: J. Fluorine Chem., 70, 1 (1995); in the presence of NBS, fluorobromination of the double bond occurs instead: J. Org. Chem., 59, 5277 (1994).
A variety of compounds undergo electrochemical fluorination at activated positions. ɑ-Fluorinations of sulfides have been extensively studied by Fuchigami and others. The reaction usually requires the presence of an electron withdrawing group ɑ- to the sulfur atom, e.g. monofluorination of ethyl (phenylthio)acetate: J. Org. Chem., 56, 6731 (1991); 59, 5937 (1994); 60, 3459 (1995), and of phenylthio substituted nitrogen heterocycles including ß-lactams: Tetrahedron Lett., 33, 7017 (1992); J. Org. Chem., 57, 3755 (1992); 58, 4200 (1993).
For electrochemical fluorodeiodination of alkyl iodides, see: Synlett, 999 (2000). Fluorodesilylation in ß-lactams has also been reported: J. Chem. Soc., Perkin 1, 1327 (1995).
Excellent, selective reagent for cleavage of O-silyl groups in carbohydrates, nucleotides, cyanohydrins, etc.: Carbohydr. Res., 166, 309 (1987); J. Org. Chem., 52, 564 (1987); Bioorg. Chem. Med. Lett., 4, 1345 (1994); J. Am. Chem. Soc., 116, 4697 (1994). This has been exploited in a mild synthesis of substituted furans: Tetrahedron Lett., 37, 6065 (1996):
The Balz-Schiemann reaction of aryldiazonium fluoroborates with the reagent under ultrasound irradiation gives improved yields of aryl fluorides: Z. Chem., 26, 169 (1986).
For a review of the use of the reagent in synthesis, see: J. Prakt. Chem./ Chem. Ztg., 338, 99 (1996).
Carpentier, C.; Godbout, R.; Otis, F.; Voyer, N. Synthesis and use of N-Fmoc-l-fluoroalanine. Tetrahedron Lett. 2015, 56 (10), 1244-1246.
Hua, G.; Du, J.; Surgenor, B. A.; Slawin, A. M.; Woollins, J. D. Novel Fluorinated Phosphorus-Sulfur Heteroatom Compounds: Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrocenyl-and Aryl-Phosphonofluorodithioic Salts, Adducts, and Esters. Molecules 2015, 20 (7), 12175-12197.
Hazard Statements: H227-H300+H310+H330-H314-H335
Combustible liquid. Fatal if swallowed. Fatal in contact with skin. Fatal if inhaled. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage. May cause respiratory irritation.
Precautionary Statements: P210-P235-P260-P262-P264b-P270-P271-P280-P284-P303+P361+P353-P304+P340-P305+P351+P338-P310-P330-P331-P363-P370+P378q-P501c
Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking. Keep cool. Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray. Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing. Wash face, hands and any exposed skin thoroughly after handling Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product. Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated area. Wear protective gloves/protective clothing/eye protection/face protection. Wear respiratory protection. IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower. IF INHALED: Remove to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing. IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing. Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician. Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. In case of fire: Use CO2, dry chemical, or foam Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant