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In the field of chemical research and agricultural industries, chiral molecules play a very extensive role of making chirally optically active drugs and compounds. A wide range of functional group-based chiral products such as chiral amines, chiral alcohols, chiral epoxides, chiral acids, and other chiral product groups have been identified and synthesized.
Chiral molecules of active pharmaceutical drugs and intermediates possess dramatically different biological activities. Although they have the same chemical structure as the racemic compound, most isomers of chiral drugs exhibit marked differences in biological activities such as pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism. There is a huge number of chiral drugs and the trend is increasing. A few examples are rifampicin (bactericidal antibiotic drug), indinavir (it is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy), and esomeprazole (proton pump inhibitor). In addition to other applications, chiral enzymes are used to separate two enantiomers of a chiral substrate.