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Organic hydroxides include quaternary ammonium hydroxides (R4N+ OH-), quaternary phosphonium hydroxides (R4P+ OH-) and tertiary sulfonium hydroxides (R3S+ OH-). These organic hydroxides may be collectively referred to as onium hydroxides. In both quaternary ammonium hydroxides and quaternary phosphonium hydroxides, there are four alkyl/aryl groups attached to nitrogen or phosphorus atoms. Some of the examples are tetrabutyl-ammonium hydroxide, benzyltriethylammonium hydroxide and n-butyltriphenylammonium hydroxide. In the case of sulfonium hydroxides, there are three groups attached to the sulfur atom. Ammonium salts are ionic compounds with the formula (R)4N+A-, where R is hydrogen, alkyl or aryl groups and A is an anion. When R is alkyl or aryl then they are referred to as quaternary ammonium salts. The quaternary ammonium cations are permanently charged, independent of the pH of their solution. Most of the ammonium salts are soluble in water and strongly dissociated. Ammonium salts are used as cleansing agents, food additives, diuretic, surfactants, antistatic agents and disinfectants. They are known to have antimicrobial activity. Osmotic pressure in cells is stabilized by quaternary ammonium salts.