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Ferrocene is a metallocene in which two cyclopentadienyl groups are bonded to iron and is an example of sandwich compound. Its structural and chemical features find applications in several fields. Chiral ferrocenyl phosphines, like diphosphine 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf) are used in transition metal-catalyzed reactions to synthesize pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Ferrocene modifications of several organic compounds for medicinal applications are presented in the review: Snegur, L.V.; Simenel, A. A.; Rodionov, A. N.; Boev, V. I. Ferrocene modification of organic compounds for medicinal applications. Russ. Chem. Bull. 2014, 63, 26-36).
Ferrocene is useful for designing many materials. It can be converted into iron nanoparticles which can serve as catalysts for the production of carbon nanotubes. Vinylferrocene can be converted into a polymer, poly(vinylferrocene), similar to polystyrene. Many anti-knock fuel formulations employ ferrocene compounds and are safer than tetraethyl lead. Many reagents and redox standards exploit their redox nature. Ferrocene forms a vital part of the small electronic devices that measure blood sugar levels. These devices use glucose oxidase, which oxidize glucose in the body, resulting in conversion of ferrocenium cations into ferrocene. Ferrocene is useful in dye-sensitized solar cells, in which ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc+) single-electron redox couple with a novel metal-free organic donoracceptor sensitizer (Carbz-PAHTDTT) are used.