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Heterocycle Formation

heterocycle formation  

Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis

Featured reactions:


A heterocyclic compound is a cyclic compound that has carbon and at least one other element as part of its ring structure. Their general structure resembles cyclic organic compounds that contain rings of only carbon. However, the presence of heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur gives heterocyclic compounds distinct physical and chemical properties.

One of the earliest named reactions in this category was discovered in 1882 by A. Hantzsch who condensed two equivalents of ethyl acetoacetate with one of acetaldehyde and ammonia to obtain a fully substituted symmetrical dihydropyridine.

Featured in this series are five of the most important named reactions that can be used in heterocycle formation, namely:


Other important named reactions include:
  • Bartoli indole synthesis
  • Biginelli reaction
  • Bischler-Napieralski isoquinoline synthesis
  • Ciamician-Dennstedt rearrangement
  • Combes quinolone synthesis
  • Dimroth rearrangement
  • Feist-Benary furan synthesis
  • Heine reaction
  • Hetero Diels-Alder reaction
  • Hofmann-Loffler-Freytag reaction
  • Krohnke pyridine synthesis
  • Larock indole synthesis
  • Madelung indole synthesis
  • Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis
  • Paterno-Buchi reaction
  • Skraup and Doebner-Miller quinolone synthesis
  • Von Pechmann reaction

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Other reaction categories:

Pericyclic and photochemical reactions NEW!

Radical reactions

Electrophilic aromatic substitution

Nucleophilic substitution reactions

Transition metal-catalyzed couplings


Reactions involving carbonyl compounds

Reduction reactions

Rearrangement reactions

Electrophilic addition reactions

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