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Organic hydrazides have the functional group characterized by a nitrogen to nitrogen covalent bond with four substituents with at least one of them being an acyl group. The general structure for a hydrazide is (R1=O)R2-N-N-R3R4. Hydrazide derivatives have been reported to possess anticonvulsant, antioxidant, hormone antagonist, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antitumor, vasodilator, antiviral and antitrypanosomal activities.
The reactivity of hydrazides to active esters is similar to that of amines. Hydrazides react with aldehydes to form hydrazones, which are less susceptible to hydrolysis than Schiff bases. Hydrazide compounds are used as key starting materials in the preparation of several heterocyclic compounds. The well-known sulfonyl hydrazies find many applications in organic chemistry, for e.g., in the Shapiro reaction. p-Toluenesulfonohydrazide (PTSH) has been shown to promote the highly efficient direct arylation of unactivated arenes with aryl halides (See: Song, Q.; Zhang, D.; Zhu, Q.; Xu, Y. p-Toluenesulfonohydrazide as Highly Efficient Initiator for Direct CH Arylation of Unactivated Arenes. Org. Lett. 2014, 16, 5272-5274).
Hydrazides are important intermediates in organic synthesis particularly in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Hydrazides are used as building blocks in the synthesis of diazole and triazoles. Hydrazide compounds also used in paint and adhesive thermoset applications. With their reactive functional group, they are often used in protein and carbohydrate chemistry. Hydrazide biotin reagents enable biotin labeling of polyclonal antibodies and other glycoproteins.