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Indolines [1-Azaindane; 2,3-Dihydroindole] are the reduced form of indoles, in which one of the double bonds in the pyrrole ring is saturated. Indolines can undergo oxidation, alkylation/acylation, substitution, dehydrogenation reactions, and can be used a starting material for many important molecules. The indole structure can be regenerated by oxidation or dehydrogenation of indolines. Indoline, and its derivatives, possess good biological activities and some have interesting structural scaffolds and are being evaluated as 5-HT2C receptor agonists for the treatment of obesity. Some derivatives have also shown antagonistic effect on progesterone receptors.
Isoindoline [2-Azaindane; Dihydroindole] is a structural isomer of indolines in which the position of nitrogen atom is in the 2-position instead of 1-position. Oxidation to the 10pi-system of isoindoline leads to isoindole, which is usually only stable when the labile ortho-quinoid structure is embedded in a pi-system. Isoindoline compounds also play a vital role in the pharmaceutical field as indoles and indolines.