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Inorganics include salts, metals, and substances made from single elements and any other compounds that do not contain carbon bonded to hydrogen.
Inorganics, in general, are ionic compounds, consisting of cations and anions joined by ionic bonding. Examples of inorganics (which are ionic compounds) are magnesium chloride MgCl2, or sodium oxide Na2O. Important salts of inorganics are the oxides, the carbonates, the sulfates and the halides. Many inorganic compounds are characterized by high melting points. Inorganics include coordination compounds, main group compounds, transition metal compounds, organometallic compounds, cluster compounds, bioinorganic compounds and solid state compounds.
Inorganics are used in a wide variety of applications. The main applications are: catalysis, crystal growth technology, photovoltaic materials, optical fibres and lasers. Inorganics play a crucial role in nanotechnology, electronics and semiconductors. They have a major impact in modern medicine as these have potential to diagnose a variety of diseases and conditions relating to cancer care, infection control, diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory diseases, ulcers inhibition, and have promising therapeutic properties. Inorganics, specifically, metals play a crucial role in biological systems, such as iron in hemoglobin which has a pivotal role in oxygen transport, and the metal ions at the centre of enzymes which help regulate several biological processes.