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Organic compounds containing iodine are called iodo compounds. In human medicine iodo compounds, such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, play a vital biological role as thyroid hormones. Iodoarenes participate in variety of organic transformations. Iodo compounds are used to prepare Grignard reagents which are widely used in organic synthesis. Iodo compounds (e.g. triiodomethane) are involved in a haloform reaction, which is used as a test for the detection of the CH3-CO- group in analytical chemistry. Like organobromo compounds, organoiodo compounds are used in coupling reactions like the BuchwaldHartwig amination, in which the aryl iodide undergoes a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction with amines to form a carbonnitrogen bond. This reaction has gained wide use in the pharmaceutical as well as chemical industries, since it involves the facile formation of aryl C-N bonds. Organoiodo compounds are also used in the Wurtz-Fittig reaction. Additionally, dichloroiodo arenes are used as reagents for the chlorination and oxidation of various organic substrates.
Many polyiodo organic compounds are employed as X-ray contrast agents, and in medical imaging. A triiodo compound, sodium acetrizoate (sodium 3-(acetylamino)-2,4,6-triiodobenzoate), is used as a contrast agent for several radiographic studies including pyelography, angiography of the brain, and cholecystography. Similarly, 3,5-diacetamido-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid is also a radiocontrast agent. In the chemical industry, iodophors are used to sanitize equipment and bottles and many of the iodo compounds possess antibacterial and antiphlogistic properties.