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There are a number heterocycles known which have more than two different hetero atoms. These compounds consist of a four membered or five membered or a six membered heterocyclic ring separately or fused to a benzene ring to form a benzo heterocyclic compound. Examples include, but are not limited to, isoxazole (a five membered heterocyclic compound containing nitrogen and oxygen atoms), benzoisoxazole (a benzo heterocyclic compound containing oxygen and nitrogen atoms), and the benzothiadiazoles (a benzo heterocyclic compound containing sulfur and nitrogen atoms).
The mixed heterocyclic compounds have various utilities such as building blocks for drugs, as anti-oxidants, and as vulcanization accelerators. For example, benzisoxazoles have been frequently found to display a variety of biological activities such as antihelmintic, anticonvulsant, antipsychotic, antihistaminic, anticancer, antiviral, antiproliferative, and antioxidant activities. Benzothiazole and its derivatives encompass an attractive heterocyclic class that displays practical applications ranging from medicine to photography and agriculture, among other things. It forms a part of compounds showing biological activities such as antimicrobial and anti-diabetic activities. Furthermore, they also find industrial applications as anti-oxidants and vulcanization accelerators. Isoxazoles are useful isosteres of pyridine, and have been found to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels to control pain, enabling the construction of tetracycline antibiotic derivatives, and as drugs for the treatment of depression.