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Nitro compounds (-NO2) are chemical compounds which contain one or more nitro group(s) as a part of their molecular structure. The organic substances (both aliphatic and aromatic) in which a carbon atom is linked with the nitrogen atom of the nitro group by covalent bond are the most common examples. These compounds exist both in liquid and solid forms and are either colourless or yellow in colour. Nitromethane, nitroethane, and nitropropane are some of the most commonly produced aliphatic nitro compounds. Nitrobenzene and trinitrotoluene (TNT) are some of the nitroaromatic compounds. While nitromethane adds to alpha-beta unsaturated carbonyl compounds in the Michael reaction as a Michael donor, nitroalkenes are Michael acceptors. Nitro compounds are involved in Leimgruber-Batcho, Bartoli and Baeyer-Emmerling indole syntheses, Nef reaction, and several other organic reactions.
Nitro compounds are among the largest and most important groups of industrial chemicals in use today. These compounds are commercially produced for use as explosives and in the manufacture of diverse products, including chemical intermediates, drugs, dyes, waxes, polymers, rubber and photographic chemicals. In pharmaceutical industry, nitro compounds have the potential to be used as therapeutic agents.