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Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

nucleophilic substitution  


Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis


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When an electron rich nucleophile reacts with the positive charge of an atom or group of atoms to replace a leaving group this is known as nucleophilic substitution and the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.

Nucleophilic substitution reactions are important in that they facilitate the interconversion of functional groups, of particular importance are the reactions of alkyl halides (R-X) and alcohols (R-OH)

One of the earliest named reactions using nucleophilic substitution is the Gabriel synthesis

Some of the most important named reactions using this technique are:



In addition, there are a number of other key named nucleophilic substitution reactions: Finkelstein reaction, Dess-Martin oxidation, Sharpless asymmetric aminohydroxylation and dihydroxylation, and Wacker oxidation.



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Other reaction categories:

Electrophilic aromatic substitution

Heterocycle-formation

Transition metal-catalyzed couplings

Oxidation

Reactions involving carbonyl compounds

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