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Pyrans, also known as oxines, are six-membered heterocyclic, non-aromatic compounds, consisting of five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom in the ring with two double bonds. There exist two isomers of pyran, 2H-pyran & 4H-pyran, that differ only in the location of the double bonds. Pyranoflavonoids, containing pyrans in the ring, are biologically important. As biologically active molecules possessing diverse pharmacological activities, pyran based molecules find applications as antimicrobials, antivirals, mutagenic compounds, antiproliferatives, sex pheromones, antitumor compounds, and for cancer therapy and central nervous system activity. Some of the pyran derivatives are widely employed as cosmetics and pigments and as potential biodegradable agrochemicals.
Tetrahydropyrans, also called as oxanes, are organic compounds consisting of a saturated six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. The tetrahydropyran ring system forms the core of pyranose sugars, such as glucose. As a protecting group, the 2-tetrahydropyranyl group is extensively used in organic synthesis for the protection of alcohols as tetrahydropyranyl ether. This confers protection to the alcohol from a variety of reaction conditions. The deprotection is relatively simple, involving acidic hydrolysis with formation of 5-hydroxypentanal as by product. Compounds bearing tetrahydropyrans have been considered to be a valuable addition to the growing list of compounds that find utility in the design of liquid crystals for LCD applications.