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Pyrazoles (also known as 1,2-diazoles) are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds. It is a 5-membered ring of three carbon atoms and two adjacent nitrogen atoms. Pyrazoles unsubstituted at the 1-position show NH- acidity and therefore react with electrophiles. Pyrazole is basic in nature, and its pKa value is 14.21, similar to that of imidazole. Pyrazole rings are very resistant to most oxidizing agents but hydrogenation in the presence of a reductive metal catalyst easily converts pyrazole into pyrazoline. The combined two N-atoms reduce the charge density at the 3- and 5-positions, permitting electrophilic substitutions mainly at the 4-position.
In the pharmaceutical field, pyrazole derivatives have gained importance for their analgesic, antipyretic, antiarrhythmic, psychoanaleptic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic, anticancer, ACE inhibitory, and antibacterial activities. Pyrazoles were reported to possess both anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities with reduced cytotoxicity, and are important class for drug discovery (Review: Bekhit, A. A.; Hymete, A.; Bekhit, A. E. A.; Damtew, A.; Aboul-Enein, H. Y. Pyrazoles as a promising scaffold for the synthesis of anti-inflammatory and/or antimicrobial agents: a review. Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 2010, 10, 1014-1033. In addition, pyrazole derivatives are also used as chelating agents and inhibitors for the corrosion of the steel.