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Quinolines (also called as benzo[b]pyridine and 1-azanaphthalene) are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds with one nitrogen atom. It has a bicyclic structure, consisting of a benzene ring fused to the 2,3-positions of the pyridine ring. Quinoline is a weak tertiary base and it can form a salt with acids. It is generally more reactive towards both electrophiles and nucleophiles.
The synthesis of quinoline derivatives has been of considerable interest in organic and medicinal chemistry since a number of drugs and natural products contain this heterocyclic moiety. Quinolines and their derivatives have been receiving more attention by researchers especially in the pharmaceutical fields, due to their wide-range of biological activities, such as anti-malarial, anti-hypertensive, anti-asthmatic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. Fluoroquinolones are popular and widely used antibacterial drugs. In addition, quinolines have also been used in the study of bio-organic and bio-organometallic processes. Quinoline-containing anti-malarial drugs are a mainstay of treatments against malaria. Quinine, a derivative of quinoline, is found naturally in plants as alkaloids. 8-Hydroxyquinoline is an important chelating agent and quinolines are used in the synthesis of rubber chemicals, dyes, and flavoring agents. Other industrial applications include their use as polymers, catalysts, corrosion inhibitors, and preservatives.